Moderne Ferienwohnungen in Kroatien privat erwarten Sie hier...
Alles deutet darauf hin, dass die Mittelschicht in den kommenden Jahren abschmilzt. Jenseits dieser Welt beginnt die gesellschaftliche Realität. Dort werden sich die Dramen der neuen Klassengesellschaft abspielen. Zum einen geht es um die Frage, ob man ab dem Lebensjahr automatisch als erwachsen gilt, was single-generation. Oder ob man mit 30 oder 40 erwachsen sein soll.
Und allein um diesen normativen Aspekt dies hat single-generation. Aus einer Not wird jetzt sozusagen eine Tugend.
Warum wir nicht mehr älter werden München: Aber anders als zu Zeiten ihrer Eltern, als es klare Vorstellungen vom Weg ins Erwachsensein gab, wissen die wenigsten heute so recht: Ist man schon alt, oder fühlt man sich noch jung? Denn innerhalb von nur einer Generation hat sich die Gesellschaft revolutioniert. Wir werden immer später erwachsen, aber wir wissen bis heute nicht, was das bedeutet: Schieben diejenigen, die heute zwischen 30 und 50 sind, den Moment, da sie die Dinge endlich in die Hand nehmen, immer noch vor sich her?
Was sind ihre Vorstellungen vom Glück, von der Liebe, von einer Karriere? Und sind all jene, die ihre Jugend so weit verlängert haben, überhaupt in der Lage, in Würde zu altern?
Werden sie nicht, weil sie Jugend für einen Charakterzug und nicht einen Lebensabschnitt halten, verzweifeln an den ersten echten Alterserscheinungen? Claudius Seidl zeigt, wo die Ursachen dieser Entwicklung liegen und was ihre Folgen sind. Und er beschreibt voller Esprit, was es für uns bedeutet, immer jünger zu werden. Innerhalb von nur einer Generation hat sich die Gesellschaft revolutioniert: Wir werden immer jünger, werden immer später erwachsen.
Claudius Seidl zeigt, warum das eine gute Nachricht ist. Dafür hat er jede Menge Anschauungsmaterial gesammelt: Und bei Freunden, seiner Schwester und Leuten aus dem Kulturbetrieb jenseits der 40, die er extra für das Buch interviewt hat In diesen Passagen liest sich das Buch tatsächlich wie ein Trostbuch für eine Generation von Übervierzigjährigen, die Es hat, es hat, meint Seidl. Seidl ficht das nicht an, auch nicht, dass es Bohemiens schon zu allen Zeiten gegeben hat. Gerrit Bartels in der TAZ vom In Gnadenlos glücklich ist das Thema bereits ausgebreitet.
So lebt das Gros der Gesellschaft. Was ist daran erwachsen? Um wirklich brillant zu sein, fehlt dem Buch jenes Temperament, jener rücksichtslose Erkenntnisbiss, der nun aber auch so gar nicht die Sache des Münchner Lässigkeitsjournalismus ist , zu dem Claudius Seidl, seit er in Berlin als Kulturchef der Frankfurter Allgemeinen Sonntagszeitung arbeitet, wehmütig hinunterschielt ", merkt Ursula MÄRZ an. Diese Dimension fehlt bei Seidl auf gespenstische Weise.
Es ist nicht nur die Auswahl zwischen Prada oder Gucci. Der Jugend Rosenbahn zurückzueilen. Süffig, kulinarisch, locker erzählt Claudius Seidl von den ewig jung Gebliebenen und ihrem Generationenkampf, in: Was macht man eigentlich, wenn ein Buch schlecht ist und man es dennoch loben muss? Dagegen die alten Jungen: Sie wollen die Vierzigersäcke und Lesebrillenträger samt ihrer öden Berufs- und Lebenserfahrung nicht mehr zu Wort kommen lassen".
Das ist ziemlich weit hergeholt für ein Buch, das - wie SPERR richtig angemerkt hat - für die Lifestyle-Schickeria geschrieben wurde, und deshalb der Beliebigkeit frönt: Schonungsloser hat dagegen single-generation. Was ist eigentlich Jugend? Schöne junge Welt, in: Das Ergebnis ist bitter für alle, die so eine Lebensart nicht pflegen können.
Sie müssen eben altern. Alternativen nennt Seidl nicht. Erfolgreiche bis Jährige sind sich, meint Seidl, sicher - obwohl sie sich nicht festlegen. S eltsam ist, dass Seidl findet, dass ihr Verhalten etwas mit Jugendlichkeit zu tun hätte. Kein Jugendlicher benimmt sich so. Jung zu sein, hat noch nie bedeutet, dass man sich sicher ist. Denn wenn es möglich wird, so überlegen zu schreiben wie Claudius Seidl, über Filme, Verhaltensbiologie und Anthropologie, dann hätte man keine Probleme mehr mit den eigenen Drüsen.
Wie lieben und leben sie heute, die Late-Bloomers, die, nun doch erwachsen geworden, den Ernst des Lebens nicht nur im Spiegel begegnen? Zwei von ihnen, Andrea Parr und Claudius Seidl, ziehen Bilanz, ganz persönlich und doch für uns alle.
Ob Politik, Kultur oder ganz einfach die Liebe: In English it is often called the Catholic Centre Party. Formed in , it successfully battled the Kulturkampf which Chancellor Otto von Bismarck launched in Prussia to reduce the power of the Catholic Church.
It soon won a quarter of the seats in the Reichstag Imperial Parliament , and its middle position on most issues allowed it to play a decisive role in the formation of majorities. In the early days of the Weimar Republic, the Centre Party was the second-largest party in the Reichstag.
After the Reichstag Fire in early , the Centre Party was one of the ones who voted for the Enabling Act , which granted dictatorial powers to Adolf Hitler. By this vote, the Centre Party effectively destroyed itself, as the Nazi Party became the only legally permitted party in the country shortly thereafter. The Centre Party was represented in the German parliament until It exists as a marginal party, mainly based in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
The Centre Party belongs to the political spectrum of " Political Catholicism " that, emerging in the early 19th century after the turmoil of the Napoleonic wars, had changed the political face of Germany. Many Catholics found themselves in Protestant dominated states.
The first major conflict between the Roman Catholic Church and a Protestant state was the "Colonian Church conflict", when the Prussian government interfered in the question of mixed marriages and the religious affiliation of children resulting from these. This led to serious aggressions against the Catholic population of the Rhineland and Westphalia and culminated in the arrest of the Archbishop of Cologne. At that time, one of the founding fathers of Political Catholicism was journalist Joseph Görres , who called upon Catholics to "stand united" for their common goals, "religious liberty and political and civil equality of the denominations".
The conflict relaxed after , with Frederick William IV 's accession to the throne. The Revolution of brought new opportunities for German Catholics. In October, the bishops had their first meeting in 40 years in Würzburg and the local "Catholic Federations" assembled in Mainz to found the "Catholic Federation of Germany". In the National Assembly , which was convened to draw up a German constitution, a "Catholic club" was formed.
This was not yet a comprehensive party, but a loose union aimed at protecting the Church's liberties in a future Germany, supported by many petitions from the " [Pope] Pius federations for religious liberty".
The later demise of the National Assembly proved to be a major setback for Political Catholicism. In Prussia , the revised constitution of granted liberties, which in parts even exceeded those of the Frankfurt draft constitution, yet two years later the minister for culture, von Raumer, issued decrees directed mainly against the Jesuits.
In reaction this led to a doubling of Catholic representatives in the subsequent elections and the formation of a Catholic club in the Prussian Diet. In , when the "New Era" governments of Wilhelm I adopted more lenient policies, the club renamed itself "Fraction of the Centre" in order to open itself up to include non-Catholics.
This name stemmed from the fact that in the Prussian Diet the Catholic representatives were seated in the centre, between the Conservatives on the right and the Liberals on the left.
Faced with military and constitutional issues, where there was no definite Church position, the group soon disintegrated and disappeared from parliament after Growing anti-Catholic sentiment and policies, including plans for dissolving all monasteries in Prussia, made it clear that a reorganisation of the group was urgently needed in order to protect Catholic minority rights, enshrined in the constitution, and to bring them over to the emerging nation state.
In June Peter Reichensberger called on Catholics to unite and, in October, priests, representatives of Catholic federations and the Catholic gentry met at Soest and drew up an election programme. The main points were:. There were also more general demands such as for a more federal, decentralised state, a limitation of state expenditure, a just distribution of taxes, the financial strengthening of the middle classes and the legal "removal of such evil states, that threaten the worker with moral or bodily ruin".
With such a manifesto, the number of Catholic representatives in the Prussian Diet rose considerably. In December , they formed a new "Centre" faction, also called the "Constitution Party" to emphasise its adherence to constitutional liberties. Three months later, early in , the Catholic representatives to the new national parliament, the Reichstag, also formed a "Centre" faction.
The party not only defended the Church's liberties, but also supported representative government and minority rights in general, in particular those of German Poles, Alsatians and Hannoverians. Also in other German states Catholic parties were formed, cooperating with the Prussian Centre Party in the Reichstag:.
In the age of nationalism, Protestant Germans, whether Conservative like Otto von Bismarck or Liberal, accused the Centre of Ultramontanism or having a greater loyalty towards the Pope than to their own nation. But the Catholics fought back vigorously and with near-unanimity.
The Centre party gained greater support from the Catholic population. Following Bismarck's turn from free trade to protectionism and from the National Liberal party to the Conservative parties, he also abandoned the unsuccessful Kulturkampf. The Centre party remained a party of opposition to Bismarck, but after his resignation in , it frequently supported the following administrations' policies in the Reichstag , particularly in the field of social security.
The Kulturkampf had reinforced the Catholic character of the Centre Party, but even during it Ludwig Windthorst had defended the party against Bismarck's accusation of being a "denominational party" in describing the Centre as "a political party with a comprehensive political programme and open to anyone, who accepts it". However, few Protestants took up this offer and the Centre remained, by the composition of its members, politicians and voters, an essentially Catholic party.
Loyal to the Pope in church matters, the Centre party steered a course independent of the Holy See on secular matters. This became apparent in the "septennat dispute" of Since the Centre Party rejected Bismarck's military budget, the Chancellor negotiated with the Holy See and promised to abolish some Kulturkampf -related laws and to support the Pope in the Roman question , if the Vatican persuaded the Centre Party to accept his bill.
Despite this agreement, the Centre Party rejected the budget and Bismarck called new elections. He also published the letters with the Vatican, intending to drive a wedge between Catholic voters loyal to the Pope and the Centre Party with the slogan: As the Kulturkampf declined, debates about the character of the party emerged culminating in the Centre dispute, in , after Julius Bachem had published the article "We must get out of the tower!
His proposal was met with passionate opposition by the greater part of Catholic public, especially since it also included the Christian trade unions and other Catholic organisations. No side could win the upper hand, when the outbreak of World War I ended the dispute. After the war, Adam Stegerwald , leader of the Christian trade unions , made another attempt at transcending the party's exclusively Catholic character and uniting Germany's fragmented party spectrum.
In he advocated the formation of a broad Christian middle-party, that would transcend denominations and social classes and which could push back the Social Democrats' influence. The Polish minority in German Empire formed one of the largest Catholic groups, but the Centre Party pursued a steady anti-Polish course in its politics and even as members of opposition, the enmity between it and Poles remained.
The party boldly supported the imperial government in the years prior to World War I openly declaring Germany's "great political and moral mission"  in the world. With the outbreak of World War I , the party also used the debates about war bonds to push for a repeal of the last remnants of anti-Jesuit laws.
As the war continued, many of the leaders of the Centre's left wing, particularly Matthias Erzberger , came to support a negotiated settlement, and Erzberger was key in the passage of the Reichstag Peace Resolution of The same year, the Centre's Georg Count Hertling , formerly Ministers-President of Bavaria , was appointed Chancellor, but he could not overcome the dominance of the military leadership of Hindenburg and Ludendorff.
When a parliamentary system of government was introduced in October , the new chancellor Max von Baden appointed representatives from the Centre party, the Social Democrats and the left-liberals as ministers. After the fall of the monarchy, conflict arose between the party and the new Social Democratic government. Adolf Hofmann, the Prussian minister for culture, attempted to decree a total separation of church and state, forcing religion out of schools.
This stirred up a wave of protest among the Catholic population, and bishops, Catholic organisations and the Centre Party itself united to combat the "red danger". This conflict bridged internal tensions within the party and secured its continual existence despite the turmoil of the revolution.
The party however was weakened by its Bavarian wing splitting off and forming the Bavarian People's Party BVP , which emphasised autonomy of the states and also took a more conservative course. The party actively cooperated with Social Democrats and left-liberal German Democratic Party DDP in drawing up the Weimar Constitution , which guaranteed what the Centre had been fighting for since its founding: The party was less successful in the school question.
Although religious education remained an ordinary subject in most schools, the comprehensive, inter-denominational schools became default.
The Centre Party, whose pragmatic principles generally left it open to supporting either a monarchical or republican form of government, proved one of the mainstays of the Weimar Republic , continuing the cooperation with SPD and DDP in the Weimar Coalition.
This combination, however, lost its majority in the elections. The party was a polyglot coalition of Catholic politicians, ranging from leftists like Matthias Erzberger and Joseph Wirth to right-wingers like Franz von Papen. As a result of the party's flexibility, it was a member of nearly every government coalition in the Weimar Republic, both with the left and right.
However, this also damaged the party's prospects because it was increasingly associated with all of the conflicts, problems, and failures of the Republic. The Centre had a share of the odium attached to the so-called "Weimar Establishment" which was blamed, especially on the right, for the " stab in the back " of the German army at the end of the war, [ citation needed ] as well as for the humiliations of the Versailles Treaty and reparations.
Erzberger himself, who had signed the armistice, was assassinated by right-wing extremists in Although the parties of the Weimar Coalition remained the base of the Weimar Republic, they could not agree to resume a formal coalition government, especially because of disagreements between the Centre Party and the Social Democrats on issues like religious schools or a nationwide Concordat with the Holy See.
Between and the Centre participated in all administrations, providing mainly the ministers for finance and labour and, on four occasions, the Chancellor. After this, the Centre participated in the non-affiliated Wilhelm Cuno 's "government of the economy", together with both liberal parties and the Bavarian People's Party BVP.
In the same year Wilhelm Marx was the Centre's candidate in the presidential elections. In the second round, combining the support of the Weimar coalition parties, he gained In June , the general elections had resulted in losses for the government parties and in gains for the Social Democrats and the Communists.
During the years of the Weimar Republic debates about the Catholic character of the party, as described above, persisted. The left wing of the party, led by Erzberger and Wirth, had close ties to the Christian trade unions led by Adam Stegerwald. The right wing advocated a move towards the right and a closer cooperation with the national movements.
The middle-ground emphasised their loyalty to the Church and rejected both extremes. To mediate the tension between the wings and to strengthen their ties with the Bishops, the party in September did not elect the two favourites Joseph Joos and Adam Stegerwald , but rather the cleric Ludwig Kaas as chairman.
In the Grand Coalition fell apart and Heinrich Brüning , from the moderate-conservative wing of the party, was appointed as Chancellor. Brüning was confronted with economic crises exacerbated by the Great Depression and had to tackle the difficult tasks of consolidating both budget and currency when faced with rising unemployment, and of also negotiating changes to the war reparations payments.
His course of strict budget discipline, with severe cuts in public expenditure, and tax increases made him extremely unpopular among the lower and middle classes as well as among the Prussian Junkers. In the elections , the parties of the Grand coalition lost their majority, forcing Brüning to base his administration not on the support of a party coalition but on that of the presidential decree "Notverordnung" of article 48 of the Constitution.
This provided for the circumventing of parliament, and the informal toleration of this practice by the parties. For this way of government based on both the President and cooperation of parliament, Brüning coined the term "authoritative or authoritarian democracy". The Centre consistently supported Brüning's government and in vigorously campaigned for the re-election of Paul von Hindenburg , calling him a "venerate historical personality" and "the keeper of the constitution". Hindenburg was re-elected against Adolf Hitler , but his moving further to the right shortly afterwards resulted in Brüning's resignation on 30 May President Hindenburg, advised by General Kurt von Schleicher , appointed the Catholic nobleman Franz von Papen as Chancellor, a member of the Centre's right wing and former cavalry captain.
The intention was to break the connection of the Centre with the other republican parties or to split the party and integrate it into a comprehensive conservative movement. However, the Centre refused to support Papen's government in any way and criticised him for "distorting and abusing good old ideals of the Centre, acting as the representative of reactionary circles".
Papen forestalled being expelled by leaving the party. Following Brüning's resignation, the Centre Party entered the opposition. Though they also opposed the National Socialists , their energies were directed mainly against the renegade Papen. Some Centre politicians were soothed by Hitler's strategy of legality into downplaying the Nazi threat. This hampered their ability of being a bulwark of the republic against the rising National Socialists.
In regard to the government, the Centre Party rejected a "temporal solution", such as Papen's presidial cabinets, and rather advocated a "total solution", i. Since the Centre considered Papen's administration of being "in a dangerous way dependent on radical right-wing parties", chairman Ludwig Kaas advised the President to recognise this connection by basing the government on a coalition with the rising right-wing parties, the "logical result of current development".
This would force the radicals to "take their share in responsibility" and "acquainting them with international politics". The Centre would then act as the party of opposition to this administration. As Papen was faced with almost uniform opposition by the parties, he had the Reichstag dissolved.
In the subsequent elections, the Centre Party campaigned on two fronts, against both the Papen government and National Socialists and reaffirmed their stance as the "constitution party" opposed to "any measure contrary to constitution, justice and law" and "unwilling to yield to terror".
The July elections brought further losses to the mainstream parties and gains to the extremist parties. The National Socialists supplanted the Social Democrats as the largest party in parliament. As Communists and National Socialists together had won the majority of seats, no government coalition could be formed without one of them. Papen tried to justify his authoritarian style of government by pointing out that parliament could no longer function properly. When Papen called upon the people to "reject the dictatorship of a single party", the Centre Party agreed "without reservation", but it also stated that "with the same resolution we reject the dictatorship of the nameless party, now in power … even if cloaked with the illusion of non-partisanship".
After Papen's attempts to attain Hitler's support for his administration had failed, the Centre began their own negotiations with the National Socialists. They started in the state of Prussia , where the Weimar Coalition had lost its majority. An alternative majority could be not found and the Papen administration had seized this opportunity to assume control of Germany's largest state in the " Prussian coup " via presidential decree.
Now, the National Socialists proposed to end this direct rule by forming a coalition with the Centre Party, promising an equal share in government. Since this went too far for the Centre's national leadership, the negotiations were transferred to the national level, where Heinrich Brüning conferred with Gregor Strasser. During that period the anti-Nazi polemics ceased in order not to disturb the negotiations.