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When in the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , which was fighting in the Eighty Years' War for its independence against Habsburg 's Spanish and imperial forces, requested its Calvinist co-religionist Bremen to join them, the city refused, but started to reinforce its fortifications.
In the territories comprising the Lower Saxon Circle decided to recruit an army in order to maintain an armed neutrality , since troops of the Catholic League were already operating in the neighbouring Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle and dangerously close to their region.
The concomitant effects of the war, debasement of the currency and rising prices, had already caused inflation which was also felt in Bremen. Thus the troops of the Catholic League were otherwise occupied and Bremen seemed relieved.
But soon after this the imperial troops under Albrecht von Wallenstein headed north in an attempt to destroy the fading Hanseatic League , in order to reduce the Hanseatic cities of Bremen, Hamburg and the Lübeck and to establish a Baltic trade monopoly, to be run by some imperial favourites including Spaniards and Poles.
The idea was to win Sweden 's and Denmark 's support, both of which had for a long time sought the destruction of the Hanseatic League.
Christian IV ordered his troops to capture all the important traffic hubs in the Prince-Archbishopric and commenced the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge, on 27 August , where he was defeated by the Leaguist troops under Johan 't Serclaes, Count of Tilly.
Christian IV and his surviving troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric and established their headquarters in Stade. Tilly then invaded the Prince-Archbishopric and captured its southern part. Bremen shut its city gates and entrenched itself behind its improved fortifications. In , Tilly turned on the city, and Bremen paid him a ransom of 10, rixdollars in order to spare it a siege.
The city remained unoccupied throughout the war. In September Francis William of Wartenberg , appointed by Ferdinand II as chairman of the imperial restitution commission for the Lower Saxon Circle, in carrying out the provisions of the Edict of Restitution, ordered the Bremian Chapter, seated in Bremen, to render an account of all the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates not to be confused with the Estates.
The Chapter refused, arguing first that the order had not been authorised and later that due to disputes with Bremen's city council, they could not freely travel to render an account, let alone do the necessary research on the estates. The anti-Catholic attitudes of Bremen's burghers and council was to make it completely impossible to prepare the restitution of estates from the Lutheran Chapter to the Roman Catholic Church.
Even Lutheran capitulars were uneasy in Calvinistic Bremen. Bremen's city council ordered that the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates within the boundaries of the unoccupied city were not to be restituted to the Catholic Church.
The council argued that the city had long been Protestant, but the restitution commission replied that the city was de jure a part of the Prince-Archbishopric, so Protestantism had illegitimately taken over Catholic-owned estates.
The city council replied that under these circumstances it would rather separate from the Holy Roman Empire and join the quasi-independent Republic of the Seven Netherlands.
In October an army, newly recruited by John Frederick, started to reconquer the Prince-Archbishopric — helped by forces from Sweden and the city of Bremen. John Frederick returned to office, only to implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme command until the end of the war.
With the impending enforcement of the military Major Power of Sweden over the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia , the city of Bremen feared it would fall under Swedish rule too. Therefore, the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of imperial immediacy from Gelnhausen Privilege.
Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden , which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen. With this in view, Swedish Bremen-Verden twice waged war on Bremen.
In the city of Bremen had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa and west of it as far as the lower branch of the Weser near Bremerlehe a part of present-day Bremerhaven. Early in , Bremen-Verden's Swedish troops captured Bremerlehe by force. When in March the city of Bremen started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish Bremen-Verden enacted the First Bremian War March to July , arguing that it was acting in self-defence.
This treaty left the main issue, the acceptance of the city of Bremen's imperial immediacy, unresolved. But the city agreed to pay tribute and levy taxes in favour of Swedish Bremen-Verden and to cede its possessions around Bederkesa and Bremerlehe, which was why it was later called Lehe.
In the city gained a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet, despite sharp protest from Swedish Bremen-Verden. So on 15 November Sweden had to sign the Treaty of Habenhausen , obliging it to destroy the fortresses built close to Bremen and banning Bremen from sending its representative to the Diet of the Lower Saxon Circle.
From then on no further Swedish attempts were made to capture the city. The harbour of Vegesack became part of the city of Bremen in In , the French — as they retreated — withdrew from Bremen. Johann Smidt , Bremen's representative at the Congress of Vienna , was successful in achieving the non-mediatisation of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck , by which they were not incorporated into neighbouring monarchies, but became sovereign republics.
Bremen joined the North German Confederation in and four years later became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire and its successors. The first German steamship was manufactured in in the shipyard of Johann Lange. In , Bremen, under Johann Smidt, its mayor at that time, purchased land from the Kingdom of Hanover , to establish the city of Bremerhaven Port of Bremen as an outpost of Bremen because the river Weser was silting up. Lloyd was a byword for commercial shipping and is now a part of Hapag-Lloyd.
In , the Bremen Cotton Exchange was founded. Henrich Focke , Georg Wulf and Werner Naumann founded Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG in Bremen in ; the aircraft construction company as of [update] forms part of Airbus , [ citation needed ] a manufacturer of civil and military aircraft. Borgward , an automobile manufacturer , was founded in , and is today part of Daimler AG.
In the city became an enclave, part of the American occupation zone surrounded by the British zone. In , Martin Mende founded Nordmende , a manufacturer of entertainment electronics. The company existed until OHB-System , a manufacturer of medium-sized space-flight satellites , was founded in The University of Bremen , founded in , is one of 11 institutions classed as an "Elite university" in Germany, and teaches approximately 23, people from countries.
Bremen lies on both sides of the River Weser , about 60 kilometres 37 miles upstream of its estuary on the North Sea and its transition to the Outer Weser by Bremerhaven. Opposite Bremen's Altstadt is the point where the "Middle Weser" becomes the "Lower Weser" and, from the area of Bremen's port, the river has been made navigable to ocean-going vessels. The region on the left bank of the Lower Weser, through which the Ochtum flows, is the Weser Marshes, the landscape on its right bank is part of the Elbe-Weser Triangle.
The city's municipal area is about 38 kilometres 24 miles long and 16 kilometres 10 miles wide. In terms of area, Bremen is the thirteenth largest city in Germany; and in terms of population the second largest city in northwest Germany after Hamburg and the tenth largest in the whole of Germany see: List of cities in Germany.
Bremen lies about 50 kilometres 31 miles east of the city of Oldenburg , kilometres 68 miles southwest of Hamburg , kilometres 75 miles northwest of Hanover , kilometres 62 miles north of Minden and kilometres 65 miles northeast of Osnabrück. Part of Bremerhaven 's port territory forms an exclave of the City of Bremen. The inner city lies on a Weser dune, which reaches a natural height of The highest natural feature in the city of Bremen is Bremen has a moderate oceanic climate Köppen climate classification Cfb due to its proximity to the North Sea coast and temperate maritime air masses that move in with the predominantly westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean.
However, periods in which continental air masses predominate may occur at any time of the year and can lead to heat waves in the summer and prolonged periods of frost in the winter. The record high temperature was Average temperatures have risen continually over the last decades, leading to a 0. As in most parts of Germany, the year has been the warmest year on record averaging Precipitation is distributed fairly even around the year with a small peak in summer mainly due to convective precipitation, i.
Snowfall and the period of snow cover are variable; whereas in some years, hardly any snow accumulation occurs, there has recently been a series of unusually snowy winters, peaking in the record year counting 84 days with a snow cover. The warmest months in Bremen are June, July, and August, with average high temperatures of Typical of its maritime location, autumn tends to remain mild well into October, while spring arrives later than in the southwestern parts of the country.
Number of minorities in Bremen by nationality as of 31 December The Stadtbürgerschaft municipal assembly is made up of 68 of the 83 legislators of the state legislature, the Bremische Bürgerschaft , who reside in the city of Bremen. The legislature is elected by the citizens of Bremen every four years.
Bremen has a reputation as a Left-wing city. This left wing atmosphere largely stems from a transition from an industrial economy to a service economy. The Greens have also been very successful in city elections. The state of Bremen , which consists of the city, is governed by a coalition of the Social Democratic Party and The Greens. One of the two mayors Bürgermeister is elected President of the Senate Präsident des Senats and serves as head of the city and the state.
The current President is Carsten Sieling. More contemporary tourist attractions include:. The skyscraper Weser Tower designed by Helmut Jahn. The Freie Waldorfschule in Bremen-Sebaldsbrück was Germany's first school built to the Passivhaus low-energy building standard. Bremen is the second development centre of the region, after Hamburg.
It forms part of the production network of Airbus SAS and this is where equipping of the wing units for all widebody Airbus aircraft and the manufacture of small sheet metal parts takes place. This segment caused 71 percent of the total downturn, with reductions in suction and liquid cargoes being market-driven. Backgroundinformation "Adjustment of the navigation channel on the Lower and Outer Elbe". Hamburg has set itself ambitious goals on climate and assigned extraordinary priority to environmental protection.
A new epoch began then, one that has transformed the Port of Hamburg dramatically. Here you find our special Website! The largest trade fair in the world for project cargo and breakbulk will take place in Bremen from May. Jointly with ten companies, it will be showcasing its portfolio of services for heavy lift cargo and project logistics. The triumphant march of the container, which has revolutionized the worldwide transport industry, commenced in the Port of Hamburg on 31 May With the impending adjustment to the Elbe fairway, potential for growth will be enhanced.
Through investments in infrastructure the Port of Hamburg counts among the cutting edge hubs on the international sea trades. At the same time, companies are driving change in the port with the development of digital business models. Cruise sailing schedule online! The Port of Hamburg magazine is the official publication of the Port of Hamburg.
Interesting stories about the Port of Hamburg and the people behind the scenes there, fascinating background reports and interviews with the experts.
We keep you posted about the latest traffic reports, throughput trends for Hamburg and ports of the region, along with additional topics on business, logistics, shipping, the hinterland, the environment, personalities and entertainment. The trade fair brought together around 50, industry visitors from more than countries, once again h The ship arrival lists on this page reveal when the Queen Mary 2, or an especially large ocean-going ship or special vessel, will be coming to Hamburg.
The country rises from the flat plains in the north to the beginning of the German central highlands in the south of the state. Agriculture has always been a major part of the economy. The biggest employer in the industry is of course the Volkswagen concern in Wolfsburg. Favourits tourist destinations are Goslar, Osterode, Clausthal-Zellerfeld in the western parts of the Harz mountains Hannover, Braunschweig, Hildesheim, these are cities with a long history Lüneburger Heide Frisian coast and the islands offshore.
Although Bremen is considered a city state, it actually consists of two enclaves, Bremen and Bremerhaven. Both cities are surrounded by the state of Lower Saxony, both are located on the river Weser. Bremerhaven is an important container port and home of the German Maritime Museum. Petri lining the market place. The statues of "Roland" and the "Bremer Stadtmusikanten" from Grimm's fairy-tales can be seen on the market square.
The city was a member of the Hanse, and a free imperial city during the Holy Roman Empire. The port of Hamburg is the second-largest port in Europe and a major tourist attraction.
The harbour area with the old warehouse district Speicherstadt is fascinating, the church St. Michaelis Michel is a famous landmark, and sure everyone knows the red-light district Reeperbahn. Berlin is the capital city of Germany, and one of the 3 city states in Germany as well.
Located in the north-east, only 70 km from the Polish border, it is also Germany's largest city. Politics, culture, sports, recreation and a vibrant nightlife - you can get all that in our thriving capital. Brandenburg's capital Potsdam, just 24 km south-west of Berlin, was the residence of Prussian kings until Brandenburg has the second least population density of all German states.
Map of Germany's States. Overview of the 16 States. Alpine scenery on the way to Berchtesgaden. Winter in the black forest. Rothenburg ob der Tauber. The Central German States. Bertholdsburg palace in Schleusingen, Thuringia. Monschau in the northern Eifel region. The Mosel near Piesport. Holsten Tor in Lübeck. Brick gothic facade of the city hall in Stralsund. Market place in Goslar.
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