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There are nine institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the Ruhr University Bochum Ruhr-Universität Bochum , one of the ten largest universities in Germany, and Bochum University of Applied Sciences Hochschule Bochum. The city lies on the low rolling hills of Bochum land ridge Bochumer Landrücken , part of the Ruhrhöhen highest elevations between the Ruhr and Emscher rivers at the border of the southern and northern Ruhr coal region.
The terrain of Bochum is characterised by rolling hills that rarely have more than three per cent graduation. Steeper graduation can be found at the Harpener Hellweg near the Berghofer Holz nature reserve 3.
The city extends north to south The perimeter of the city limits is There is sedimentary rock of carbon and chalk. The geological strata can be visited in the former quarry of Klosterbusch and at the Geological Gardens. The urban area is divided into the river Ruhr catchment in the south and the Emscher catchment in the north. The Ruhr in combination with upstream reservoirs is also used for drinking water abstraction.
The industrial developments in the region since the 19th century were leading to a kind of division of labour between the two river catchments, pumping drinking water from the Ruhr into the municipal supply system and discharging waste water mainly into the Emscher system.
The ecological restoration of the Emscher tributaries initiated by the Emschergenossenschaft started with the Internationale Bauausstellung Emscher Park in These are generally mixed forests of oak and beech. The occurrence of holly gives evidence of Bochum's temperate climate. Bochum is divided into six administrative districts with a total of , inhabitants living in an urban area of Bochum dates from the 9th century, when Charlemagne set up a royal court at the junction of two important trade routes.
It was first officially mentioned in as Cofbuokheim in a document of the archbishops of Cologne. In , Count Engelbert II von der Marck granted Bochum a town charter, but the town remained insignificant until the 19th century, when the coal mining and steel industries emerged in the Ruhr area, leading to the growth of the entire region. The population of Bochum increased from about 4, in to , in Bochum acquired city status, incorporating neighbouring towns and villages.
Additional population gains came from immigration, primarily from Poland. After the war, the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia was established, consisting of the Rhineland and Westphalia.
Bochum is located in that state. In the postwar period, Bochum began developing as a cultural centre of the Ruhr area.
Since the seventies, Bochum's industry has moved from heavy industry to the service sector. Between and , the coal mines all closed. Other industries, such as automotive , compensated for the loss of jobs. The Opel Astra is assembled at the Opel Bochum plant ; however, by , the factory was in serious financial difficulties  and in December , Opel announced that it would stop vehicle production Bochum plant in In the course of a comprehensive community reform in , Wattenscheid , a formerly independent city, was integrated into the city of Bochum.
A local referendum against the integration failed. In , the new synagogue of the Jewish community of Bochum, Herne und Hattingen was opened. In , Nokia closed down its production plant, causing the loss of thousands of jobs, both at the plant and at local suppliers.
On 9 November , Kristallnacht , the Jewish citizens of Bochum were attacked. The synagogue was set on fire and there was rioting against Jewish citizens. The first Jews from Bochum were deported to Nazi concentration camps and many Jewish institutions and homes were destroyed. Some Jewish citizens are known by name to have been killed in the Holocaust , including 19 who were younger than 16 years old. Joseph Klirsfeld was Bochum's rabbi at this time.
He and his wife fled to Palestine. Archived from the original on 30 October Uwe Leifeld" in German. Kai Michalke" in German. Jupp Nehl" in German. Walter Oswald" in German. Peter Peschel" in German. Thomas Reis" in German. Dirk Riechmann und Michael Rzehaczek" in German.
Archived from the original on 5 February Hilko Ristau" in German. Christian Schreier" in German. Archived from the original on 25 May Frank Schulz" in German. Thomas Stickroth" in German. Jupp Tenhagen" in German. Hans Walitza" in German. Uwe Wegmann" in German. Andreas Wessels" in German. Vahid Hashemian" in German. Thordur Gudjonsson" in German. Rob Reekers" in German. Retrieved 30 January Tomasz Waldoch" in German.
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