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Evaluate the impact of the Cold War on the culture of two countries, each chosen from a different region. Around the base are the names of his major victories:

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Comfortable shoulder restraints with redundant, hydraulic cylinders keep riders in their seats safely. Of course, Gerstlauer offers custom theming and LED light packages as options. Analyse the methods used to attain civil rights in two democratic multiparty states, each chosen from a different region.

Evaluate the domestic, social and economic policies of two of the following leaders of the United States between and Compare and contrast either social welfare systems or education systems in two democratic multiparty states. Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states In what ways, and with what success, did either Sukarno or Nasser deal with domestic challenges after gaining power? In what ways, and with what success, did one authoritarian or single-party ruler deal with internal opposition?

To what extent was the maintenance of power by either Mao or Castro a result of successful economic policies? Compare and contrast the status and treatment of women or minorities in two authoritarian or single-party states, each Assess the role of each of the following in the rise to power of Stalin and Hitler: With reference to two countries, each chosen from a different region excluding the US or the USSR , assess the social and economic impact of the Cold War.

For what reasons, and with what results, did the Cold War affect the Middle East between and ? Compare and contrast the impact of two of the following leaders on the Cold War: To what extent did a ideological and b economic factors contribute to the ending of the Cold War?

Analyse the social and economic effects of one war that occurred in the first half of the twentieth century. For what reasons, and with what results, did foreign intervention occur in either the Spanish Civil War — or the Nigerian Civil War —?

Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses With reference to one democratic state excluding Weimar Germany , analyse a the challenges itfaced and b how successfully these challenges were overcome.

Assess how effectively the governments of either Canada — or Argentina — dealt with political and economic challenges. With reference to two democratic states, analyse the causes of political extremism and how successful the states were in dealing with it. Analyse how democracy was established in either South Africa after or Japan after Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states With reference to the leaders of two single-party states, each chosen from a different region, analyse to what extent internal conflict and weak governments contributed to their rise to power.

Analyse the ways in which either Stalin or Nasser came to power. Assess the importance of the use of force for the establishment of totalitarian control. Assess the importance of the cult of personality in the maintenance of power of one of the following: Compare and contrast the treatment of religious groups in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.

Assess the success of either Hitler or Nyerere in implementing their social and economic policies. Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post Central and Eastern European states Analyse the reasons for the growth of independence movements in one European colonial empire. Assess the factors which enabled one Eastern European state to gain independence from Soviet control. Analyse the importance of either Ho Chi Minh Vietnam or Nkrumah Ghana to the success of the independence movements in their respective countries.

Why did post-colonial governments in Asia and Africa experience instability after gaining their independence? For what reasons, and with what results, did Yugoslavia dissolve? Analyse the reasons for, and the impact of, changes in US—Chinese relations in the s. Assess the impact of the Cold War on the economies of two countries, each chosen from a different region. Analyse the impact of either Gorbachev or Reagan on the course of the Cold War in the s.

Assess the impact of the Cold War on two non-aligned states, each chosen from a different region. Analyse the economic and political causes of two civil wars, each chosen from a different region. Why, and with what consequences, was there so little opposition to aggressive expansionism in the period —? Assess the contribution of guerrilla warfare to the outcome of either the Chinese Civil War — and — or the Algerian War — With reference to the period —, analyse the factors that helped and hindered attempts to promote collective security.

To what extent was the outcome of either the Falklands War or the Gulf War determined by technological developments? Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses 7. With reference to one democratic state in the period up to , examine how successfully it was able to deal with the economic and political challenges it faced. By what methods, and with what success, did Nehru deal with the internal and external problems facing India —?

Evaluate the measures undertaken by the governments of Eisenhower and Kennedy to promote the attainment of civil rights in the United States — Analyse the reasons for, and the results of, the breakdown of democracy in Nigeria — With reference to the period after , assess the effectiveness of movements to promote either gender equality or civil rights in one democratic state.

In what ways, and with what success, have two democratic states dealt with the challenge of internal political extremism in the second half of the twentieth century? Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states With reference to one single-party state, examine the nature and extent of internal opposition and the success of the single-party state in dealing with this opposition.

By what methods, and with what success, did either Hitler or Stalin attempt to establish a totalitarian state after coming to power? To what extent was a successful domestic policy the reason for the maintenance of power of one of the following: With reference to one single-party or authoritarian leader, assess the extent to which the promises made during the rise to power were kept after they came to power.

In what ways, and to what extent, did the Soviet policy of peaceful coexistence affect superpower relations from to ? Compare and contrast two of the following as Cold War conflicts: Korea — ; Congo — ; Vietnam — ; Afghanistan — Account for the changing nature of Sino—Soviet relations from to Examine the role played by economic factors and the arms race in the collapse of the USSR and the end of the Cold War by Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses Examine the obstacles to the success of democracy in Weimar Germany — For what reasons, and by what methods, did political and economic change occur in Japan between and ?

With reference to one democratic state in the first half of the 20th century, examine how it coped with threats from either internal or external sources. Examine the methods used, and level of success achieved, in the struggle to gain gender equality in one 20th century democratic state. To what extent was Canada successful in dealing with the political and economic challenges it faced in the period —?

Assess the importance of the use of force and economic policies in the maintenance of power of one authoritarian or single-party ruler. With reference to one of the following leaders: Analyse the successes and failures of either Mao or Nasser as leader of a single-party state. Examine the status of women or the role of education in two single-party or authoritarian states, each chosen from a different region. Topic 4 Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post Central and Eastern European states With reference to one African or Asian nationalist movement, assess the reasons for its success in achieving independence from colonial rule.

Compare and contrast the methods used in the struggle for independence and the reasons why independence was finally granted to Algeria and the Belgian Congo. In what ways, and with what success, did Mugabe deal with the challenges faced by the newly independent state of Zimbabwe? How successful were the methods used to deal with the political challenges faced by one Central and Eastern European or Balkan state after it achieved independence?

Assess the importance of the leadership of either Ho Chi Minh in the organization of resistance tocolonial control or Havel in the organization of resistance to Soviet control. Evaluate the reasons for the change in East—West relations from the Yalta conference to the end of the Potsdam conference. To what extent did the US policy of containment prove effective in limiting Soviet expansion between and ? Assess the significance of events in either Germany — or the Congo — to the development of the Cold War.

Evaluate the causes of the change in US-Chinese relations after Examine the reasons for, and significance of, foreign intervention in two 20th century civil wars,each chosen from a different region.

Compare and contrast the impact of naval and air power in two 20th century wars before or two 20th century wars after Examine the successes and failures of collective security in the 10 years after either the First World War or the Second World War. Evaluate the importance of religion and economic factors as causes of either the Indo—Pakistan wars —; ; or the Nigerian Civil War — Examine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the war between Iran and Iraq — Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses Examine the reasons for the establishment of democracy in Germany in , and evaluate how effectively it dealt with the economic and political challenges it faced up to Evaluate the reasons for, and methods used in, the post-war reconstruction of Japan between and Examine the extent to which South Africa was successful in addressing the political, social and economic challenges it faced between and Examine the methods used, and the level of success achieved, by two 20th century democratic states in their efforts to address gender inequality.

Examine the methods used, and the level of success achieved, by one civil rights movement in a 20th century democratic state. Topic 3 Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states Examine the importance of each of the following in the rise to power of either Stalin or Hitler: Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of two of the following: With reference to two authoritarian or single-party states, each chosen from a different region, evaluate the effectiveness of the methods used to deal with opposition.

With reference to two authoritarian or single-party states, each chosen from a different region, evaluate the impact of domestic policies on the status of women. To what extent was Nyerere successful in achieving his domestic policy aims in Tanzania? Topic 5 The Cold War To what extent did decisions about post-war Germany contribute to the breakdown of East—West relations between and ?

Evaluate the reasons for the adoption by the Soviet Union of peaceful coexistence and examine the impact of this policy on Cold War relations between and Evaluate the successes and failures of the policy of containment up to in either the Middle East or Asia. To what extent did the arms race influence the development of the Cold War after ? May Time Zone 1 Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars. To what extent did total war become the norm during the 20th century?

Evaluate the role of technology in prolonging the First World War. Examine the role of revolutionary movements in causing any two conflicts. Compare and contrast the causes of the Nigerian Civil War — and the Nicaraguan Revolution — To what extent was the peace settlement following the Algerian War — successful? Examine the view that economic problems were the longest lasting results of 20th century wars.

To what extent were social and economic challenges effectively confronted in either Japan. Evaluate how effectively the rights of ethnic and religious minorities have been protected in two democratic states. To what extent was the successful establishment of democracy in South Africa matched by social and economic change?

Examine the importance of economic conditions in the rise to power of two. Examine the view that internal opposition to Hitler had little impact. To what extent did authoritarian and single-party leaders have a negative effect on the arts? With reference to either Peron or Nasser, to what extent do you agree that his economic policies failed?

Evaluate the successes and failures of the Marshall Plan. Evaluate the influence of Cold War tensions on two military conflicts, each chosen from a different region.

Evaluate the reasons why two nations, each chosen from a different region, joined the Non-Aligned Movement. Examine the internal and external factors that led to the establishment of the Warsaw Pact. Examine the impact of resistance movements on the outcome of any one war. Compare and contrast the role of foreign intervention in the Nigerian Civil War — and the Nicaraguan Revolution — With reference to either the Spanish Civil War — or one of the Chinese Civil Wars — or — , to what extent was ideology the major cause of con ict?

Examine the social impact of the Second World War in any one country. There had been more competent officers, but they had either been employed elsewhere or had fallen from Napoleon's favour.

They would then return, assist the fleet in Brest to emerge from the blockade, and together clear the English Channel of Royal Navy ships, ensuring a safe passage for the invasion barges. Unlike William Cornwallis , who maintained a close blockade off Brest with the Channel Fleet , Nelson adopted a loose blockade in the hope of luring the French out for a major battle. Nelson commenced a search of the Mediterranean, erroneously supposing that the French intended to make for Egypt.

However, Villeneuve took his fleet through the Strait of Gibraltar , rendezvoused with the Spanish fleet, and sailed as planned for the Caribbean. Once Nelson realised that the French had crossed the Atlantic Ocean, he set off in pursuit. Villeneuve returned from the Caribbean to Europe , intending to break the blockade at Brest, [13] but after two of his Spanish ships were captured during the Battle of Cape Finisterre by a squadron under Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Calder , Villeneuve abandoned this plan and sailed back to Ferrol in northern Spain.

Napoleon's invasion plans for Britain depended on having a sufficiently large number of ships of the line before Boulogne in France. This would require Villeneuve's force of 33 ships to join Vice-Admiral Ganteaume 's force of 21 ships at Brest, along with a squadron of five ships under Captain Allemand, which would have given him a combined force of 59 ships of the line. When Villeneuve set sail from Ferrol on 10 August, he was under orders from Napoleon to sail northward toward Brest.

This ended the immediate threat of invasion. The same month, Nelson returned home to Britain after two years of duty at sea. On 15 August, Cornwallis decided to detach 20 ships of the line from the fleet guarding the English Channel and to have them sail southward to engage the enemy forces in Spain.

Nelson joined the fleet on 28 September to take command. At this point, Nelson's fleet badly needed provisioning. These ships were later diverted for convoy duty in the Mediterranean , although Nelson had expected them to return. Other British ships continued to arrive, and by 15 October the fleet was up to full strength for the battle. Nelson also lost Calder's flagship , the gun Prince of Wales , which he sent home as Calder had been recalled by the Admiralty to face a court martial for his apparent lack of aggression during the engagement off Cape Finisterre on 22 July.

Villeneuve's ships were also more than two thousand men short of the force needed to sail. These were not the only problems faced by the Franco-Spanish fleet. The main French ships of the line had been kept in harbour for years by the British blockade with only brief sorties. The French crews included few experienced sailors, and, as most of the crew had to be taught the elements of seamanship on the few occasions when they got to sea, gunnery was neglected.

The hasty voyage across the Atlantic and back used up vital supplies. Villeneuve's supply situation began to improve in October, but news of Nelson's arrival made Villeneuve reluctant to leave port. Indeed, his captains had held a vote on the matter and decided to stay in harbour.

On 21 October, Admiral Nelson had 27 ships of the line under his command. He also had four gun second rates and twenty third rates. One of the third rates was an gun vessel, and sixteen were gun vessels. The remaining three were gun ships, which were being phased out of the Royal Navy at the time of the battle.

Nelson also had four frigates of 38 or 36 guns, a gun schooner and a gun cutter. Against Nelson, Vice-Admiral Villeneuve—sailing on his flagship Bucentaure —fielded 33 ships of the line, including some of the largest in the world at the time. The Spanish contributed four first-rates to the fleet. The fourth first-rate carried guns.

The fleet had six gun third-rates, four French and two Spanish , and one Spanish gun third-rate. The remaining 22 third-rates were gun vessels, of which fourteen were French and eight Spanish.

In total, the Spanish contributed 15 ships of the line and the French The fleet also included five gun frigates and two gun brigs , all French. The prevailing tactical orthodoxy at the time involved manoeuvring to approach the enemy fleet in a single line of battle and then engaging broadside in parallel lines. One reason for the development of the line of battle system was to facilitate control of the fleet: Nelson's solution to the problem was to cut the opposing line in three.

Approaching in two columns, sailing perpendicular to the enemy's line, one towards the centre of the opposing line and one towards the trailing end, his ships would break the enemy formation into three, surround one third, and force them to fight to the end.

The plan had three principal advantages. First, the British fleet would close with the Franco-Spanish as quickly as possible, reducing the chance that they would be able to escape without fighting.

Nelson knew that the superior seamanship, faster gunnery and better morale of his crews were great advantages. The ships in the van of the enemy fleet would have to turn back to support the rear, which would take a long time. The main drawback of attacking head-on was that as the leading British ships approached, the Franco-Spanish fleet would be able to direct raking broadside fire at their bows, to which they would be unable to reply. To lessen the time the fleet was exposed to this danger, Nelson had his ships make all available sail including stuns'ls , yet another departure from the norm.

The Combined Fleet was sailing across a heavy swell , causing the ships to roll heavily and exacerbating the problem. Nelson's plan was indeed a gamble, but a carefully calculated one. During the period of blockade off the coast of Spain in October, Nelson instructed his captains, over two dinners aboard Victory , on his plan for the approaching battle. The order of sailing, in which the fleet was arranged when the enemy was first sighted, was to be the order of the ensuing action so that no time would be wasted in forming a precise line.

One, led by his second-in-command Vice-Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood , was to sail into the rear of the enemy line, while the other, led by Nelson, was to sail into the centre and vanguard. In preparation for the battle, Nelson ordered the ships of his fleet to be painted in a distinctive yellow and black pattern later known as the Nelson Chequer that would make them easy to distinguish from their opponents. Nelson was careful to point out that something had to be left to chance.

Nothing is sure in a sea battle, so he left his captains free from all hampering rules by telling them that "No captain can do very wrong if he places his ship alongside that of the enemy. Admiral Villeneuve himself expressed his belief that Nelson would use some sort of unorthodox attack, stating specifically that he believed—accurately—that Nelson would drive right at his line.

But his long game of cat and mouse with Nelson had worn him down, and he was suffering from a loss of nerve. Arguing that the inexperience of his officers meant he would not be able to maintain formation in more than one group, he chose not to act on his assessment. At first, Villeneuve was optimistic about returning to the Mediterranean, but soon had second thoughts.

A war council was held aboard his flagship, Bucentaure , on 8 October. At the same time, he received intelligence that a detachment of six British ships Admiral Louis' squadron , had docked at Gibraltar, thus weakening the British fleet. This was used as the pretext for sudden change. The weather, however, suddenly turned calm following a week of gales.

This slowed the progress of the fleet leaving the harbour, giving the British plenty of warning. Villeneuve had drawn up plans to form a force of four squadrons, each containing both French and Spanish ships.

It took most of 20 October for Villeneuve to get his fleet organised; it eventually set sail in three columns for the Straits of Gibraltar to the southeast. That same evening, Achille spotted a force of 18 British ships of the line in pursuit. The fleet began to prepare for battle and during the night, they were ordered into a single line.

The following day, Nelson's fleet of 27 ships of the line and four frigates was spotted in pursuit from the northwest with the wind behind it. Villeneuve again ordered his fleet into three columns, but soon changed his mind and ordered a single line.

The result was a sprawling, uneven formation. This reversed the order of the allied line, placing the rear division under Rear-Admiral Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley in the vanguard. The wind became contrary at this point, often shifting direction.

The very light wind rendered manoeuvring virtually impossible for all but the most expert seamen. The inexperienced crews had difficulty with the changing conditions, and it took nearly an hour and a half for Villeneuve's order to be completed.

The French and Spanish fleet now formed an uneven, angular crescent, with the slower ships generally to leeward and closer to the shore. Nelson's entire fleet was visible to Villeneuve, drawn up in two parallel columns. The two fleets would be within range of each other within an hour. Villeneuve was concerned at this point about forming up a line, as his ships were unevenly spaced and in an irregular formation.

As the British drew closer, they could see that the enemy was not sailing in a tight order, but rather in irregular groups. Nelson could not immediately make out the French flagship as the French and Spanish were not flying command pennants. Nelson was outnumbered and outgunned, the enemy totalling nearly 30, men and 2, guns to his 17, men and 2, guns. The Franco-Spanish fleet also had six more ships of the line, and so could more readily combine their fire. There was no way for some of Nelson's ships to avoid being "doubled on" or even "trebled on".

As the two fleets drew closer, anxiety began to build among officers and sailors; one British sailor described the time before thus: The battle progressed largely according to Nelson's plan.

His Lordship came to me on the poop , and after ordering certain signals to be made, about a quarter to noon, he said, "Mr. The term "England" was widely used at the time to refer to the United Kingdom; the British fleet included significant contingents from Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Unlike the photographic depiction right , this signal would have been shown on the mizzen mast only and would have required 12 lifts.

As the battle opened, the French and Spanish were in a ragged curved line headed north. As planned, the British fleet was approaching the Franco-Spanish line in two columns. Leading the northern, windward column in Victory was Nelson, while Collingwood in the gun Royal Sovereign led the second, leeward, column. The two British columns approached from the west at nearly a right angle to the allied line.

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