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Children in Room 3 0 1 2 3 4. Adults in Room 4 1 2 3 4. Outside this wall from onwards a ring road called Gürtel was built. In it was decided to integrate 33 suburbs called Vororte beyond that wall into Vienna by 1 January  and transform them into districts no. From to , Vienna had expanded only on the right bank of the Danube, following the main branch before the regulation of —, i. In , the 21st district was created by integrating Floridsdorf, Kagran, Stadlau, Hirschstetten, Aspern and other villages on the left bank of the Danube into Vienna, in Strebersdorf followed.
On 15 October the Nazis created Great Vienna with 26 districts by merging 97 towns and villages into Vienna, 80 of which were returned to surrounding Lower Austria in Industries are located mostly in the southern and eastern districts.
The Innere Stadt is situated away from the main flow of the Danube , but is bounded by the Donaukanal "Danube canal". Vienna's second and twentieth districts are located between the Donaukanal and the Danube River. Across the Danube, where the Vienna International Centre is located districts 21—22 , and in the southern areas district 23 are the newest parts of the city.
In particular, long-term mayor Karl Lueger was able to not apply the general voting rights for men introduced by and for the parliament of imperial Austria, the Reichsrat , in , thereby excluding most of the working class from taking part in decisions. For Adolf Hitler , who spent some years in Vienna, Lueger was a teacher of how to use antisemitism in politics.
During the period of the First Republic — , the Vienna Social Democrats undertook many social reforms. At that time, Vienna's municipal policy was admired by Socialists throughout Europe, who therefore referred to the city as " Red Vienna " Rotes Wien. In February troops of the Austrian federal government under Engelbert Dollfuss , who had closed down the first chamber of the federal parliament, the Nationalrat , in , and paramilitary socialist organisations were engaged in the Austrian Civil War, which led to the ban of the Social Democratic party.
The only break in this SPÖ dominance came between and , when the Social Democratic Party was illegal, mayors were appointed by the austro-fascist and later by the Nazi authorities. The city has enacted many social democratic policies. The Gemeindebauten are social housing assets that are well integrated into the city architecture outside the first or "inner" district.
The low rents enable comfortable accommodation and good access to the city amenities. Many of the projects were built after the Second World War on vacant lots that were destroyed by bombing during the war. The city took particular pride in building them to a high standard. Since Vienna obtained federal state Bundesland status of its own by the federal constitution of , the city council is also the state parliament Landtag , and the mayor except — also holds the function of the state governor Landeshauptmann.
The Rathaus accommodates the offices of the mayor Magistrat der Stadt Wien and the state government Landesregierung. The city is administered by a multitude of departments Magistratsabteilungen , politically supervised by amtsführende Stadträte members of the city government leading offices; according to the Vienna constitution opposition parties have the right to designate members of the city government not leading offices.
In the City Council election, the SPÖ lost its overall majority in the seat chamber, winning 43 seats and In the SPÖ regained the overall majority with 52 seats and Vienna is one of the wealthiest regions in the European Union: Its gross regional product of EUR 47, per capita constituted With a share of Industry and commerce have a share of The most important business sectors are trade Since the fall of the Iron Curtain in , Vienna has expanded its position as gateway to Eastern Europe: In and in international firms established offices in Vienna.
Altogether, approximately 8, new companies have been founded in Vienna every year since Since , the city hosts the annual Pioneers Festival, the largest start-up event in Central Europe with 2, international participants taking place at Hofburg Palace. Tech Cocktail, an online portal for the start-up scene, has ranked Vienna sixth among the top ten start-up cities worldwide. The city of Vienna attaches major importance to science and research and focuses on creating a positive environment for research and development.
With a research quota of 3. In 8, IT businesses with a workforce of 64, were located in the Vienna Region. The main products are instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation as well as electronic components.
The British company UBM has rated Vienna one of the Top 10 Internet Cities worldwide, by analysing criteria like connection speed, WiFi availability, innovation spirit and open government data. According to the broadband strategy of the City, full broadband coverage will be reached by In , international conferences were held in Vienna, making it the second most popular congress location worldwide according to the statistics of the International Congress and Convention Association.
Regarding quality of living, Vienna leads the Quality of Living Ranking by the international Mercer Consulting Group for the seventh consecutive year. According to the City RepTrack ranking by the Reputation Institute, Vienna has the best reputation in comparison with major global cities.
US climate strategist Boyd Cohen placed Vienna first in his first global smart cities ranking of In the ranking, Vienna reached third place among European cities behind Copenhagen and Amsterdam. The station is served by 1, trains with , passengers. There is a shopping centre with approximately 90 shops and restaurants. Seestadt Aspern is one of the largest urban expansion projects of Europe. A 5 hectare artificial lake, offices, apartments and a tube station within walking distance are supposed to attract 20, new citizens when construction is completed in It is a long-term umbrella strategy that is supposed to establish a conducive, long-term and structural framework in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from 3.
A stated goal is that, by , all vehicles within the municipal boundaries will run without conventional propulsion technologies. Additionally, Vienna aims to be one of the five biggest European research and innovation hubs in Art and culture had a long tradition in Vienna, including theatre, opera, classical music and fine arts.
The Burgtheater is considered one of the best theatres in the German-speaking world alongside its branch, the Akademietheater. The Volkstheater Wien and the Theater in der Josefstadt also enjoy good reputations. There is also a multitude of smaller theatres, in many cases devoted to less mainstream forms of the performing arts, such as modern, experimental plays or cabaret.
Vienna is also home to a number of opera houses, including the Theater an der Wien , the Staatsoper and the Volksoper , the latter being devoted to the typical Viennese operetta. Classical concerts are performed at world-famous venues such as the Wiener Musikverein , home of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra known across the world for the annual widely broadcast "New Year's Day Concert", as well as the Wiener Konzerthaus , home of the internationally renowned Vienna Symphony.
Up until , the Theater an der Wien has hosted premieres of musicals, although with the year of the Mozart celebrations it has devoted itself to the opera again and has since become a stagione opera house offering one new production each month, thus quickly becoming one of Europe's most interesting and advanced opera houses. Since Theater an der Wien has taken over the Wiener Kammeroper, a historical small theatre in the first district of Vienna seating spectators, turning it into its second venue for smaller sized productions and chamber operas created by the young ensemble of Theater an der Wien JET.
Before the most successful musical was Elisabeth , which was later translated into several languages and performed all over the world. The Wiener Taschenoper is dedicated to stage music of the 20th and 21st century. The Haus der Musik "house of music" opened in the year The Wienerlied is a unique song genre from Vienna. There are approximately 60, — 70, Wienerlieder.
In the popular British new romantic group Ultravox paid a tribute to Vienna on an album and an artful music video recording called Vienna.
The inspiration for this work arose from the cinema production called The Third Man with the title Zither music of Anton Karas. It was founded in and is located in the 8th Vienna's district. It is the oldest English-language theater in Europe outside the UK.
Among the most notable Viennese Jews, some of whom left Austria before and during Nazi persecution, are the following figures: The Hofburg is the location of the Imperial Treasury Schatzkammer , holding the imperial jewels of the Habsburg dynasty.
The Sisi Museum a museum devoted to Empress Elisabeth of Austria allows visitors to view the imperial apartments as well as the silver cabinet.
Directly opposite the Hofburg are the Kunsthistorisches Museum , which houses many paintings by old masters , ancient and classical artifacts, and the Naturhistorisches Museum.
A number of museums are located in the Museumsquartier museum quarter , the former Imperial Stalls which were converted into a museum complex in the s. The Liechtenstein Palace contains much of one of the world's largest private art collections , especially strong in the Baroque. Castle Belvedere , built under Prince Eugene , has a gallery containing paintings by Gustav Klimt The Kiss , Egon Schiele, and other painters of the early 20th century, also sculptures by Franz Xaver Messerschmidt , and changing exhibitions too.
The museums on the history of the city, including the former Historical Museum of the City of Vienna on Karlsplatz , the Hermesvilla , the residences and birthplaces of various composers, the Museum of the Romans , and the Vienna Clock Museum , are now gathered together under the group umbrella Vienna Museum.
In addition there are museums dedicated to Vienna's individual districts. They provide a record of individual struggles, achievements and tragedy as the city grew and survived two world wars.
For readers seeking family histories these are good sources of information. A variety of architectural styles can be found in Vienna, such as the Romanesque Ruprechtskirche and the Baroque Karlskirche.
Styles range from classicist buildings to modern architecture. Art Nouveau left many architectural traces in Vienna. His works include the Langer House and the Zacherlhaus — Most radical is the church's crypt, with its slender concrete columns and angular, cubist capitals and bases. Concurrent to the Art Nouveau movement was the Wiener Moderne , during which some architects shunned the use of extraneous adornment.
The Hundertwasserhaus by Friedensreich Hundertwasser , designed to counter the clinical look of modern architecture, is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions.
Another example of unique architecture is the Wotrubakirche by sculptor Fritz Wotruba. In the s, a number of quarters were adapted and extensive building projects were implemented in the areas around Donaustadt north of the Danube and Wienerberg in southern Vienna. The meter high DC Tower 1 located on the Northern bank of the Danube, completed in , is the tallest skyscraper in Vienna.
Most buildings in Vienna are relatively low; in early there were around buildings higher than 40 metres feet. The number of high-rise buildings is kept low by building legislation aimed at preserving green areas and districts designated as world cultural heritage.
Strong rules apply to the planning, authorisation and construction of high-rise buildings. Consequently, much of the inner city is a high-rise free zone.
Vienna is the last great capital of the 19th-century ball. There are over balls per year, some featuring as many as nine live orchestras. While the Opera Ball is the best known internationally of all the Austrian balls, other balls such as the Kaffeesiederball Cafe Owners Ball , the Jägerball Hunter's Ball and the Life Ball AIDS charity event are almost as well known within Austria and even better appreciated for their cordial atmosphere.
Viennese of at least middle class may visit a number of balls in their lifetime. Dancers and opera singers from the Vienna State Opera often perform at the openings of the larger balls. A Vienna ball is an all-night cultural attraction. Vienna is Austria's main centre of education and home to many universities, professional colleges and gymnasiums high schools. Green areas include Laaer-Berg including the Bohemian Prater and the foothills of the Wienerwald , which reaches into the outer areas of the city.
Small parks, known by the Viennese as Beserlparks , are everywhere in the inner city areas. Many of Vienna's famous parks include monuments, such as the Stadtpark with its statue of Johann Strauss II , and the gardens of the baroque palace , where the State Treaty was signed. Vienna's principal park is the Prater which is home to the Riesenrad , a Ferris wheel , and Kugelmugel , a micronation the shape of a sphere. The imperial Schönbrunn 's grounds contain an 18th-century park which includes the world's oldest zoo , founded in The Donauinsel , part of Vienna's flood defences, is a Austria's capital is home to numerous football teams.
Other important sports clubs include the Raiffeisen Vikings Vienna American Football , who won the Eurobowl title between and 4 times in a row and had a perfect season in , the Aon hotVolleys Vienna , one of Europe's premier Volleyball organisations, the Vienna Wanderers baseball who won the and Championship of the Austrian Baseball League, and the Vienna Capitals Ice Hockey.
Vienna hosts many different sporting events including the Vienna City Marathon , which attracts more than 10, participants every year and normally takes place in May. Tennis tournament Vienna Open also takes place in the city since The matches are played in the Wiener Stadthalle.
The Neu Donau, which was formed after the Donauinsel was created is free of river traffic and has been referred to as an "autobahn for swimmers" due to its use by the public for commuting. Vienna is well known for Wiener Schnitzel , a cutlet of veal Kalbsschnitzel or pork Schweinsschnitzel that is pounded flat, coated in flour, egg and breadcrumbs, and fried in clarified butter. It is available in almost every restaurant that serves Viennese cuisine and can be eaten hot or cold.
The traditional 'Wiener Schnitzel' though is a cutlet of veal. Other examples of Viennese cuisine include Tafelspitz very lean boiled beef , which is traditionally served with Geröstete Erdäpfel boiled potatoes mashed with a fork and subsequently fried and horseradish sauce, Apfelkren a mixture of horseradish, cream and apple and Schnittlauchsauce a chives sauce made with mayonnaise and stale bread.
Vienna has a long tradition of producing cakes and desserts. These include Apfelstrudel hot apple strudel , Milchrahmstrudel milk-cream strudel , Palatschinken sweet pancakes , and Knödel dumplings often filled with fruit such as apricots Marillenknödel.
Sachertorte , a delicately moist chocolate cake with apricot jam created by the Sacher Hotel , is world-famous. In winter, small street stands sell traditional Maroni hot chestnuts and potato fritters.
Sausages are popular and available from street vendors Würstelstand throughout the day and into the night. The sausage known as Wiener German for Viennese in the U. Other popular sausages are Burenwurst a coarse beef and pork sausage, generally boiled , Käsekrainer spicy pork with small chunks of cheese , and Bratwurst a white pork sausage.
Most can be ordered "mit Brot" with bread or as a "hot dog" stuffed inside a long roll. Mustard is the traditional condiment and usually offered in two varieties: Kebab, pizza and noodles are, increasingly, the snack foods most widely available from small stands. The Naschmarkt is a permanent market for fruit, vegetables, spices, fish, meat, etc.
The city has many coffee and breakfast stores. Vienna, along with Paris , Santiago , Cape Town , Prague , Canberra , Bratislava and Warsaw [ citation needed ] , is one of the few remaining world capital cities with its own vineyards. The wine is often drunk as a Spritzer "G'spritzter" with sparkling water. The Grüner Veltliner , a dry white wine, is the most widely cultivated wine in Austria.
Beer is next in importance to wine. Vienna has a single large brewery, Ottakringer , and more than ten microbreweries. A "Beisl" is a typical small Austrian pub, of which Vienna has many. Also, local soft drinks such as Almdudler are very popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages, placing it on the top spots along American counterparts such as Coca-Cola in terms of market share.
Another popular drink is the so-called " Spezi ", a mix between Coca-Cola and the original formula of Orange Fanta or the more locally renowned Frucade. These coffee houses are unique to Vienna and many cities have unsuccessfully sought to copy them. Traditionally, the coffee comes with a glass of water. Kolschitzky then opened Vienna's first coffee shop.
Julius Meinl set up a modern roasting plant in the same premises where the coffee sacks were found, in Major tourist attractions include the imperial palaces of the Hofburg and Schönbrunn also home to the world's oldest zoo, Tiergarten Schönbrunn and the Riesenrad in the Prater. Cultural highlights include the Burgtheater , the Wiener Staatsoper , the Lipizzaner horses at the spanische Hofreitschule , and the Vienna Boys' Choir , as well as excursions to Vienna's Heurigen district Döbling.
There are also more than art museums, which together attract over eight million visitors per year. There are many popular sites associated with composers who lived in Vienna including Beethoven's various residences and grave at Zentralfriedhof Central Cemetery which is the largest cemetery in Vienna and the burial site of many famous people. Mozart has a memorial grave at the Habsburg gardens and at St. Marx cemetery where his grave was lost.
Vienna's many churches also draw large crowds, famous of which are St. Ulrich and the Votivkirche. Modern attractions include the Hundertwasserhaus , the United Nations headquarters and the view from the Donauturm.
Vienna has an extensive transportation network with a unified fare system that integrates municipal, regional and railway systems under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region VOR. Public transport is provided by buses, trams and 5 underground metro lines U-Bahn , most operated by the Wiener Linien. There are also more than 50 S-train stations within the city limits.
Suburban trains are operated by the ÖBB. The city forms the hub of the Austrian railway system, with services to all parts of the country and abroad. The airport handled approximately 22 million passengers in Following lengthy negotiations with surrounding communities, the airport will be expanded to increase its capacity by adding a third runway. The airport is currently undergoing a major expansion, including a new terminal building opened in to prepare for an expected increase in passengers.
In conjunction, the University of Vienna annually hosts the prestigious Willem C. Vis Moot , an international commercial arbitration competition for students of law from around the world.
Various special diplomatic meetings have been held in Vienna in the latter half of the 20th century, resulting in various documents bearing the name Vienna Convention or Vienna Document. Vienna also hosted the negotiations leading to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran's nuclear program as well as the Vienna peace talks for Syria.
Alongside international and intergovernmental organisations, there are dozens of charitable organisations based in Vienna.. Guests such as Bill Clinton and Whoopi Goldberg were recent attendees. The general policy of the City of Vienna is not to sign any twin or sister city agreements with other cities.
Instead Vienna has only cooperation agreements in which specific cooperation areas are defined. In addition, individual Viennese districts have international partnerships all over the world. A detailed list can be found on the following webpage of the City of Vienna. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Wien disambiguation.
This article is about the capital of Austria. For other uses, see Vienna disambiguation. Capital city and state in Austria. Stephen's Cathedral , and Hofburg Palace.
See also Other names of Vienna. History of Vienna and Timeline of Vienna. Gemeinderat and Landtag of Vienna. Music of Vienna and Music of Austria. List of museums in Vienna. Buildings and structures in Austria. Tourist attractions in Vienna.
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