The already widespread methods of woodblock printing and then Pi Sheng 's movable type printing by the 11th century was the impetus for the massive production of paper money in premodern China. At around the same time in the medieval Islamic world , a vigorous monetary economy was created during the 7th—12th centuries on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-value currency the dinar.
Innovations introduced by Muslim economists, traders and merchants include the earliest uses of credit ,  cheques , promissory notes ,  savings accounts , transactional accounts , loaning, trusts , exchange rates , the transfer of credit and debt ,  and banking institutions for loans and deposits.
In Europe, paper money was first introduced in Sweden in Sweden was rich in copper, thus, because of copper's low value, extraordinarily big coins often weighing several kilograms had to be made.
The advantages of paper currency were numerous: It enabled the sale of stock in joint stock companies , and the redemption of those shares in paper. However, these advantages held within them disadvantages. First, since a note has no intrinsic value, there was nothing to stop issuing authorities from printing more of it than they had specie to back it with. Second, because it increased the money supply, it increased inflationary pressures, a fact observed by David Hume in the 18th century.
The result is that paper money would often lead to an inflationary bubble, which could collapse if people began demanding hard money, causing the demand for paper notes to fall to zero. The printing of paper money was also associated with wars, and financing of wars, and therefore regarded as part of maintaining a standing army. For these reasons, paper currency was held in suspicion and hostility in Europe and America. It was also addictive, since the speculative profits of trade and capital creation were quite large.
Major nations established mints to print money and mint coins, and branches of their treasury to collect taxes and hold gold and silver stock.
At this time both silver and gold were considered legal tender , and accepted by governments for taxes. However, the instability in the ratio between the two grew over the course of the 19th century, with the increase both in supply of these metals, particularly silver, and of trade. This is called bimetallism and the attempt to create a bimetallic standard where both gold and silver backed currency remained in circulation occupied the efforts of inflationists.
Governments at this point could use currency as an instrument of policy, printing paper currency such as the United States Greenback , to pay for military expenditures.
They could also set the terms at which they would redeem notes for specie, by limiting the amount of purchase, or the minimum amount that could be redeemed. By , most of the industrializing nations were on some form of gold standard, with paper notes and silver coins constituting the circulating medium.
Private banks and governments across the world followed Gresham's Law: This did not happen all around the world at the same time, but occurred sporadically, generally in times of war or financial crisis, beginning in the early part of the 20th century and continuing across the world until the late 20th century, when the regime of floating fiat currencies came into force.
One of the last countries to break away from the gold standard was the United States in No country anywhere in the world today has an enforceable gold standard or silver standard currency system. Commercial bank money or demand deposits are claims against financial institutions that can be used for the purchase of goods and services. A demand deposit account is an account from which funds can be withdrawn at any time by check or cash withdrawal without giving the bank or financial institution any prior notice.
Banks have the legal obligation to return funds held in demand deposits immediately upon demand or 'at call'. Demand deposit withdrawals can be performed in person, via checks or bank drafts, using automatic teller machines ATMs , or through online banking.
Commercial bank money is created through fractional-reserve banking , the banking practice where banks keep only a fraction of their deposits in reserve as cash and other highly liquid assets and lend out the remainder, while maintaining the simultaneous obligation to redeem all these deposits upon demand.
The process of fractional-reserve banking has a cumulative effect of money creation by commercial banks, as it expands money supply cash and demand deposits beyond what it would otherwise be. Because of the prevalence of fractional reserve banking, the broad money supply of most countries is a multiple larger than the amount of base money created by the country's central bank. That multiple called the money multiplier is determined by the reserve requirement or other financial ratio requirements imposed by financial regulators.
The money supply of a country is usually held to be the total amount of currency in circulation plus the total value of checking and savings deposits in the commercial banks in the country. In modern economies, relatively little of the money supply is in physical currency. For example, in December in the U. Many digital currencies, in particular Flooz and Beenz , had gained momentum before the Dot-com bubble of the early s. Not much innovation occurred until the conception of Bitcoin in , which introduced the concept of a cryptocurrency.
When gold and silver are used as money, the money supply can grow only if the supply of these metals is increased by mining. This rate of increase will accelerate during periods of gold rushes and discoveries, such as when Columbus discovered the New World and brought back gold and silver to Spain, or when gold was discovered in California in This causes inflation, as the value of gold goes down. However, if the rate of gold mining cannot keep up with the growth of the economy, gold becomes relatively more valuable, and prices denominated in gold will drop, causing deflation.
Deflation was the more typical situation for over a century when gold and paper money backed by gold were used as money in the 18th and 19th centuries. Modern day monetary systems are based on fiat money and are no longer tied to the value of gold.
The control of the amount of money in the economy is known as monetary policy. Monetary policy is the process by which a government, central bank, or monetary authority manages the money supply to achieve specific goals.
Usually the goal of monetary policy is to accommodate economic growth in an environment of stable prices. For example, it is clearly stated in the Federal Reserve Act that the Board of Governors and the Federal Open Market Committee should seek "to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.
A failed monetary policy can have significant detrimental effects on an economy and the society that depends on it. These include hyperinflation , stagflation , recession , high unemployment, shortages of imported goods, inability to export goods, and even total monetary collapse and the adoption of a much less efficient barter economy.
This happened in Russia, for instance, after the fall of the Soviet Union. Governments and central banks have taken both regulatory and free market approaches to monetary policy.
Some of the tools used to control the money supply include:. In the US, the Federal Reserve is responsible for controlling the money supply, while in the Euro area the respective institution is the European Central Bank. For many years much of monetary policy was influenced by an economic theory known as monetarism. Monetarism is an economic theory which argues that management of the money supply should be the primary means of regulating economic activity.
The stability of the demand for money prior to the s was a key finding of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz  supported by the work of David Laidler ,  and many others. The nature of the demand for money changed during the s owing to technical, institutional, and legal factors [ clarification needed ] and the influence of monetarism has since decreased.
In economics, in many cases, the money can be treated as the capital. The capital markets definition includes the money markets and some other investment markets. Counterfeit money is imitation currency produced without the legal sanction of the state or government. Producing or using counterfeit money is a form of fraud or forgery. Counterfeiting is almost as old as money itself. A form of counterfeiting is the production of documents by legitimate printers in response to fraudulent instructions.
Today some of the finest counterfeit banknotes are called Superdollars because of their high quality and likeness to the real U. There has been significant counterfeiting of Euro banknotes and coins since the launch of the currency in , but considerably less than for the U.
Money laundering is the process in which the proceeds of crime are transformed into ostensibly legitimate money or other assets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Money disambiguation.
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